VIA treats folding bicycles exactly as if they are carry-on luggage. This means they are subject to the 62″ linear dimension limit of a “large article”. Whoever drafted this regulation or decided it should apply seems never to have actually looked at folding bikes. Only two of the 18 models listed on http://www.foldingbike20.com/ meet this requirement, both with 16″ wheels.
Furthermore, counting a folding bike as baggage limits the passenger to just one other, “small personal article” of 17 x 6 x 13 inches, barely enough for a single pannier bag and certainly insufficient to even “credit-card tour” (staying in B&Bs), let alone camp.
If you’re interested in supporting a change in policy regarding Folding Bikes on Via Rail, please see the attached letter to VIA Rail.